Morphologic confounders and CD19 negativity in a case of hairy cell leukemia.

Pulkit Rastogi, Sreejesh Sreedharanunni, Uday Yanamandra, Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva, Neelam Varma
  • Pulkit Rastogi
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India- 160012, India
  • Sreejesh Sreedharanunni
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India-160012, India | sreejesh.s@pgimer.edu.in
  • Uday Yanamandra
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India- 160012, India
  • Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India- 160012, India
  • Neelam Varma
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India- 160012, India

Abstract

Objectives:We report a case of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) initially misdiagnosed as plasma cell dyscrasia due to various clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic confounders.

Methods and results:In a patient diagnosed of marrow plasmacytosis and serum monoclonal protein elsewhere and referred to our hospital, morphological evaluation of bone marrow aspirate smears and trephine biopsy, immunophenotyping, and molecular testing (BRAFV600E mutation) were done. Clinically, the patient was asymptomatic, bone marrow revealed plasmacytosis, mastocytosis and lymphocytosis with a few “hairy” cells. Immunophenotyping revealed features of HCL with aberrant CD10 expression and a subclone of CD19neg cells. A diagnosis of HCL with reactive plasmacytosis and mast cell hyperplasia was made and confirmed by immunophenotyping and molecular studies.

Conclusion:Hematopathologists must be aware of various confounding factors and should judiciously use flow cytometric and molecular studies for attaining a proper diagnosis of HCL. We also report a very rare immunophenotypic aberrancy (CD 19 negativity) in HCL

Keywords

Hairy cell leukemia; Aberrancy; Immunophenotype; CD19 negativity.

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