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Description of tuberculosis (TB) among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) recipients is scanty in the literature even in countries where TB is common. Most of reports of TB in HSCT patients were from ASIA, with TB incidence varying from 0.0014 (USA) to 16% (Pakistan). There are few reports of diagnosis of TB during the first two weeks after HSCT, most of cases described in the literature occurred after 90 days of HSCT, and the lung was the organ most often involved. The mortality varied from 0 to 50% and is higher among allogeneic HSCT. There is no consensus regarding the screening with tuberculin skin test or QuantiFERON-TB gold, and primary prophylaxis for latent TB, and whether in developing country with high prevalence of TB the epidemiologic query should be emphasized.
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