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under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background and Objectives:
Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises
several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious
diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and
outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB)
and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor.
Study Population and Methods
|Table 1. Anti-TB medications and protocols.|
|Figure 1. TB high-risk pediatric population observed at the referral Center for pediatric TB in the Northern Sardinia: number of native versus immigrant children stratified per calendar year (2009-2014).|
|Table 2. Classification of the study population into three categories of “exposed”, “LTBI” and “active TB” patients (n, %), depending on the TST/IGRA and Chest X-ray (TX) negative [–] or positive [+] results at the first evaluation and management.|
|Figure 2. Diagnostic and therapeutic flow-chart of our study population, subdivided into the three categories of latent TB (LTBI), active TB and TB exposed children depending on the TST/IGRA and chest-X Ray (TX) negative [–] or positive [+] results.|
|Table 3. Clinical and radiological findings associated to TST and/or TX positivity at the initial evaluation in the 22 children with active TB.|
|Figure 3. Chest radiograph and brain MRI images of a 2-year-old girl with disseminated TB.|
|Figure 4. Chest radiographs at two different time points of a 9-year-old girl with pleurisy.|
|Figure 5. Chest TC images of 9-year-old girl with pleurisy at the time of TB diagnosis.|
AcknowledgementsWe are grateful to Professor Giovanni Fadda for advice and helpful discussion and to Dr. Mark Soloski and Mary Blue for assistance with writing in the English language. This work was partially supported by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia.