1 Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology-Pediatric Unit, University of Bari "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy.
2 Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
| This is an Open Access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
coronaviruses (HCoVs) commonly cause mild upper-respiratory tract
illnesses but can lead to more severe and diffusive diseases. A variety
of signs and symptoms may be present, and infections can range in
severity from the common cold and sore throat to more serious laryngeal
or tracheal infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Among the seven
coronaviruses that affect humans (SARS)-CoV, the Middle East
respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and the most recent coronavirus
disease 2019 (COVID-19) represent potential life-threatening diseases
worldwide. In adults, they may cause severe pneumonia that evolves in
respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure with a high
mortality rate. Children appear to be less susceptible to develop
severe clinical disease and present usually with mild and aspecific
symptoms similar to other respiratory infections typical of childhood.
However, some children, such as infants, adolescents, or those with
underlying diseases may be more at-risk categories and require greater
caution from clinicians. Available data on pediatric coronavirus
infections are rare and scattered in the literature. The purpose of
this review is to provide to clinicians a complete and updated panel
useful to recognize and characterize the broad spectrum of clinical
manifestations of coronavirus infections in the pediatric age.
|Table 1. Principal features of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and the most recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).|
Endemic Coronavirus in Children
SARS in Children
|Table 2. World Health Organization (WHO) Case Definitions for Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).|
Diagnosis of IDA
|Table 2. World Health Organization (WHO) Case Definitions for Surveillance of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).|
COVID-19 in Children
|Table 4. World Health Organization (WHO) Case Definitions for Surveillance of COVID-19.|
|Figure 1. Symptoms of COVID-19 infection in pediatric age.|
Diagnosis and Treatment of HCoVs Infections