RENAL ABNORMALITIES AMONG SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS IN A POOR MANAGEMENT SETTING: A SURVEY IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Main Article Content

Paul Kambale-Kombi
Roland Marini Djang’eing’a
Jean-Pierre Alworong’a Opara
Jean-Paulin Mbo Mukonkole
Vincent Bours
Dieu-Merci Mbumba Lupaka
Serge Tonen-Wolyec
Lucien Bolukaoto Bome
Charles Kayembe Tshilumba
Salomon Batina-Agasa

Keywords

Sickle cell disease, prevalence, sickle cell nephropathy, renal abnormalities, Democratic Republic of the Congo, sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

Background & objective: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is now a well-established cause of renal damage. In the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), SCD is common. However, sickle cell nephropathy remains unstudied in this region. Thus, this study aimed to assess renal abnormalities in SCD patients in Kisangani (northeastern DRC).


Methods: This cross-sectional study included 98 sickle cell patients selected from six health facilities in Kisangani and 89 healthy non-sickle cell subjects as the control group. Based on a survey form, a clinical examination and biological tests were performed to collect data related to the sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and hemoglobin phenotype. We used a spectrophotometer to measure serum creatinine and uricemia, the sickle SCAN® device for hemoglobin phenotype, and an automatic multifunction analyzer for urine albumin/creatinine ratio. Data were entered into an Excel file and analyzed on SPSS 20.0.


 Results: The mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 11.79±9.03 mg/mmol in SCD patients, significantly higher than in AA (1.69±1.89 mg/mmol) and AS (2.97±4.46 mg/mmol) subjects. The decrease in glomerular filtration rate was more observed in SCD patients with hyperuricemia compared to those with normal uric acid levels. A significantly elevated prevalence of chronic kidney disease was observed among SCD patients (87.8%) compared to 23.8% in AS and 7.7% in AA subjects.


Conclusions: This study highlighted that albuminuria and chronic kidney disease are common in SCD patients in Kisangani. More studies are needed to document these complications further.


 


Keywords: Sickle cell disease, prevalence, sickle cell nephropathy, renal abnormalities, Democratic Republic of the Congo, sub-Saharan Africa.


 


 

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