LETERMOVIR PRIMARY CYTOMEGALOVIRUS PROPHYLAXIS IN ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: COULD INFECTION AND DISEASE NO LONGER BE A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM? Letermovir and Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in HSCT

Main Article Content

Fabian Herrera

Keywords

letermovir; cytomegalovirus; hematopoietic cell transplantation

Abstract

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the most common clinically significant infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.


Objectives: The present study was designed to describe and compare the incidence of untreated CMV reactivation (uCMVr), clinically significant infection (cs-CMVi) and disease (CMVd), as well as CMV-related hospitalization and outcome of allo-HCT patients, either treated with letermovir (LET) primary prophylaxis or managed with preemptive therapy (PET).


Methods: This is a prospective observational cohort study of adult CMV seropositive allo-HCT patients who either received primary prophylaxis with LET within the first 100 days after HCT or were managed with PET.


Results: The study population comprised 105 patients (28 in the LET group and 77 in the PET group). Compared to the PET group, patients in the LET group received more allo-HCT from alternative donors (54.5% vs. 82.14%, P=0.012). More than half of the patients in both groups were classified as high risk for CMVd. In the LET vs. PET group, cs-CMVi and CMVd developed respectively in 0 vs. 50 (64.94%), P=<0.0001, and 0 vs. 6 (7.79%), P=0.18. In the LET group, uCMVr occurred in 5 (17.8%) and were all considered blips. Hospital admissions related to cs-CMVi or CMVd in the PET group vs. LET group were 47 (61.04%) vs. 0, respectively, P=<0.0001. No differences were observed in 100-day mortality.


Conclusions: LET primary prophylaxis proved effective in preventing cs-CMVi and CMVd and reducing hospitalizations in allo-HCT adults. Blips can occur during prophylaxis and do not require LET discontinuation.


Keywords: letermovir; cytomegalovirus; hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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