JC virus disease is a rare infectious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There is a few data in the literature on the frequency of JCV after allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We describe a rare occurrence of Progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy (PML), with a rapidly fatal outcome, in one patient after UCBT.
This case report demonstrates that patients presenting neurological symptoms after UCBT, the JCV encephalitis must be early suspected. These findings could have practical implications in patients presenting neurological symptoms and radiological signs after UCBT. Unfortunately inadequate drug penetration and the multi antiviral resistance as well as the severely immuno-suppressed state of this patient may have contributed to treatment failure.