Franco Aversa, Lucia Prezioso, Ilenia Manfra, Federica Galaverna, Angelica Spolzino, Alessandro Monti
  • Lucia Prezioso
    Affiliation not present
  • Ilenia Manfra
    Affiliation not present
  • Federica Galaverna
    Affiliation not present
  • Angelica Spolzino
    Affiliation not present
  • Alessandro Monti
    Affiliation not present


The advantage of using a Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donor is that almost every patient who does not have a HLA-identical donor or who urgently needs hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has at least one family member with whom shares one haplotype (haploidentical) and who is promptly available as a donor. The major challenge of haplo-HSCT is intense bi-directional alloreactivity leading to high incidences of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in graft processing and in pharmacologic prophylaxis of GVHD have reduced these risks and have made haplo-HSCT a viable alternative for patients lacking a matched donor. Indeed, the haplo-HSCT  has spread to centers worldwide even though some centers have preferred an approach based on T cell depletion of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs), others have focused on new strategies for GvHD prevention, such as G-CSF priming of bone marrow and robust post-transplant immune suppression or post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY). Today, the graft can be a megadose of T-cell depleted PBPCs or standard dose of unmanipulated bone marrow and/or PBPCs.  Although haplo-HSCT modalities are based mainly on high intensity conditioning regimens, recently introduced reduced intensity regimens (RIC)   showed promise in decreasing early transplant-related mortality (TRM), and extending the opportunity of HSCT to an elderly population with more comorbidities. Infections are still mostly responsible for toxicity and non-relapse mortality due to prolonged immunosuppression related, or not, to GVHD. Future challenges lie in determining the safest preparative conditioning regimen, minimizing GvHD and promoting rapid and more robust immune reconstitution.


stem cell transplantation; haploidentical; posttransplant immune recovery; lymphocyte recovery; infections;

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