Background: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) occur due to direct mutational events of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. Disease latency, mutational events, and prognosis vary with drugs categories.
Methods: We describe a cohort of 30 patients, 18 females and 12 males, with a median age of 52.5 years (range, 20 to 64), submitted to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our department between September 1999 and March 2017. Patients had a history of a solid tumor in 14 cases, a hematological disease in 15 cases and both of them in one case. After a median of 36.5 months (range, 4 to 190) from the first neoplasm, patients developed t-AML in 19 cases and t-MDS in 11 cases. Molecular abnormalities were detected in 5 patients, while karyotype aberrations were found in 17 patients. Patients received conventional chemotherapy in 14 cases, azacitidine in 10 cases and both of them in one case. Five patients were submitted to HSCT without previous treatment except for supportive therapy.
Results: Seventeen patients obtained sustained CR after SCT, while 8 patients showed resistant or relapsed disease. The remaining five patients died early after SCT. At follow up time (May 2017) 13 patients were alive with a median OS of 48 months (range 3-195), while 17 patients died after a median of 4 months (range 1-27) by relapse mortality in 6 cases and non-relapse mortality in the other 11 patients.
Conclusions: Global OS was 43%. After SCT 56.7% of patients with t-MN obtained and maintained CR.
Keywords: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Secondary leukemia.