A CASE SERIES HIGHLIGHTING THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF COMMON, UNCOMMON AND ATYPICAL/UNUSUAL HEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS ON BONE MARROW EXAMINATION IN CASES OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

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Prateek Bhatia
Dipanjan Haldar
Neelam Varma
RK Marwaha
Subhash Varma

Keywords

Atypical, Bone marrow, Common, Uncommon, Visceral Leishmaniasis

Abstract

Introduction: Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy still remains as one of the vital tests for confirmation of diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative frequency of common, uncommon and atypical hematological findings in cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Materials & Methods: A total of 16 cases of Leishmaniasis diagnosed on Bone marrow examination over a period of two years (2008-2010), were retrieved from the archives and the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration smears and trephine biopsies were examined for the common, uncommon and atypical features as described in the literature. Results: Out of the total of 16 cases, 10 were pediatric and 6 adult cases. The common findings like pancytopenia, peripheral blood monocytosis, increased histiocytes on aspirate smears and granulomas on biopsies were noted in 12/16 (75%), 9/16 (56.25%), 13/16 (81.2%) and 11/16 (69%) cases respectively. Amongst the uncommon findings, hemophagocytosis was noted in 12/ 16 (75%) cases, plasma cells with inclusions in 6/16 (37.5%) and LD bodies in cells other than histiocytes in 4/16 (25%) cases. The atypical findings included organism aggregates noted in 9/16 (56%) cases, Pelger-Heut cells seen in 4/16 (25%) cases and increased focal vascularity on biopsies in 10/16 (62.5%) cases. The average parasite density (APD) on smears was 3+ and the range of positivity was 1+ to 5+. Conclusion: The knowledge of these morphological clues can assist us in searching for LD bodies and correctly diagnosing the condition without excessive dependence on unnecessary and sophisticated tests.

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