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Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening hyper inflammatory disease. Micro RNAs (miRNA) are about 22 nucleotide-long, small RNAs encoded with genes, and they have regulatory functions in immune response.
Objective: To determine the miRNA expression levels of 11 secondary HLH patients, we evaluated the associations of miRNA levels with pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and prognosis of the disease.
Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with secondary HLH from January 2011 to December 2012 were included in this study. We profiled the expressions of 379 miRNAs in plasma of both HLH patients and healthy controls. Patients were evaluated regarding with age, clinical findings, miRNA expresions, laboratory data, treatment, and prognosis, by using descriptive statistics.Results: A total of 11 secondary HLH patients and 11 healthy children were included in this study. miR-205-5p was expressed in all case and controls and expression level of miR-205-5p was found 6.21 fold higher than control group (p=0.01). We detected the second highest expression percent in miR-194-5p with 81% of cases and controls. Expression level of miR-194-5p was found to have 163 fold higher than controls (p= 0.009). miR-30c-5p showed 77% expression percent in cases and controls together. The expression level of this miRNA was detected 9 fold decreased in HLH patients compared to healthy children (p= 0.031). Conclusion: We showed that miR-205-5p, miR-194-5p and miR-30c-5p could be useful plasma biomarkers for HLH. Further research is needed in larger and homogenous study groups, especially for these miRNAs as biomarkers for HLH.