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Over the past decade, invasive fungal infections (IFI) have remained an important problem in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). The optimal approach for prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to be determined.
We conducted a retrospective, bi-institutional comparative clinical study, and compared the efficacy and safety of micafungin 50mg/day (iv) with those of fluconazole (400mg/day) or itraconazole 200mg/day (iv) as prophylaxis for adult patients with various haematological diseases receiving haplo-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation (haplo).
Overall, 99 patients were identified; 30 patients received micafungin, and 69 patients received fluconazole or itraconazole. After a median follow-up of 13 months (range: 5-23), Proven or probable IFIs were reported in 3 patients (10%) in the micafungin group and 8 patients (12%) in the fluconazole or itraconazole group. Fewer patients in the micafungin group had invasive aspergillosis (1 [3%] vs. 5 [7%], P=0.6). A total of 4 (13%) patients in the micafungin group and 23 (33%) patients in the fluconazole or itraconazole group received empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.14).
No serious adverse events related to treatment were reported by patients and there was no treatment discontinuation because of drug-related adverse events in both groups.
Despite the retrospective design of the study and limited sample, it contributes reassuring data to confirm results from randomised clinical trials, and to define a place for micafungin in prophylaxis after haplo.
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