Main Article Content
Background and Objectives
Imported malaria poses a serious public health problem in Qatar because its population is “naïve” to such infection; where local transmission might lead to serious life-threatening infection and might even trigger epidemics.
This study is a retrospective review of the imported malaria cases in Qatar reported by the malaria surveillance program at the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), during the period between January 2008 and December 2015. All cases were imported and underwent parasitological confirmation through microscopy.
A total of 4092 malaria cases were reported during 2008-2015 in Qatar. The demographic features of the imported cases show that the majority of cases were males (93%), non-Qatari(99.6%), and aged 15 to 44 years(82.1%). Moreover, P. vivax was found to be the main etiologic agent accounting for more than three-quarters (78.7%) of the imported cases. In addition, almost a third (33.1%) of the cases were reported during the months of July, August, and September.
Imported malaria in Qatar has witnessed an increase during the past 7 years, despite a long period of constant reduction; where the people most affected were adult male migrants from endemic countries. Many challenges need to be overcome to prevent the reintroduction of malaria into the country.
Downloads month by month
1: World Health Organization. World malaria report 2015. Geneva: WHO Press; 2015.
2: Fact Sheet: World Malaria Report 2015 [Internet]. who.int. 2016 [cited 15 March 2018]. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/media/world-malaria-report-2015/en/
3: Committee on Malaria Vaccines. Vaccines against malaria. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 1996.
4: Smith A, Bradley D, Smith V, Blaze M, Behrens R, Chiodini P et al. Imported malaria and high risk groups: observational study using UK surveillance data 1987-2006. BMJ. 2008;337(jul03 2):a120-a120.
5, 21: Beljaev A. The malaria situation in the WHO eastern Mediterranean region. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia. 2000;(2):12-5.
6, 8, 11, 29: Al‐Kuwari M. Epidemiology of Imported Malaria in Qatar. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2009;16(2):119-122.
7: Qatar - International tourism [Internet]. Indexmundi.com. [cited 15 March 2018]. Available from: http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/qatar/international-tourism
9, 12, 28: Khan F, Lutof A, Yassin M, Khattab M, Saleh M, Rezeq H et al. Imported malaria in Qatar: A one year hospital-based study in 2005. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2009;7(2):111-117.
10: Status report on artemisinin and ACT resistance (April 2017) [Internet]. who.int. 2017 [cited 15 March 2017]. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241500479/en/index.html
13, 16, 22, 27: Iqbal J, Al-Ali F, Sher A, Hira P. Imported Malaria in Kuwait (1985-2000). Journal of Travel Medicine. 2003;10(6):324-329.
14, 23, 30: Ismaeel AY , Senok AC , Jassim Al-Khaja KA , Botta GA . Status of malaria in the Kingdom of Bahrain: a 10-year review . J Travel Med 2004 ; 11 : 97 – 101 .
15, 17, 24: Bashwari L, Mandil A, Bahnassy A, Al-Shamsi M, Bukhari H. Epidemiological profile of malaria in a university hospital in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2001;22(2):133-8.
18: Dar F, Bayoumi R, AlKarmi T, Shalabi A, Beidas F, Hussein M. Status of imported malaria in a control zone of the United Arab Emirates bordering an area of unstable malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1993;87(6):617-619.
19 : Lobel H, Baker M, Gras F, Stennies G, Meerburg P, Hiemstra E et al. Use of Malaria Prevention Measures by North American and European Travelers to East Africa. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2001;8(4):167-172.
20: Kumar A, Valecha N, Jain T, Dash A. Burden of malaria in India: retrospective and prospective view. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007;77(6):69-78.
25: Al-Seghayer SM , Kenawy MA , Ali OTE . Malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia epidemiology and control . Sci J King Faisal University 1999 ; 1 : 6 – 20 .
26: Al-Tawfiq J. Epidemiology of travel-related malaria in a non-malarious area in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2006;27(1):86-9.