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Mahtab Hadadi
Hamid Heidari
Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie
Mohammad Motamedifar


MRSA, VRSA, Antiseptics, Antibiotic resistance, Mupirocin


Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of nosocomial infections that leads to broad spectrum of diseases. Increasing antibiotic resistance among S. aureus strains, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious concern. In addition, the emergence of antiseptics resistance in MRSA helps organism to easily persist and spread in healthcare environments. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of vancomycin, mupirocin and antiseptic resistant S. aureus strains.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a total of 120 MRSA isolates collected from two major hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vancomycin and mupirocin were determined by E-test method according to CLSI and Eucast guidelines. Presence of resistance genes were investigated by PCR method.

Results: Antibacterial susceptibility tests for MRSA isolates showed that 7 isolates (5.8%) were vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and 15 isolates (12.5%) were high-level mupirocin resistant (MuH). None of the isolate had vancomycin resistance gene (vanA), but the frequency of mupirocin resistance gene was significant and 55 (45.8%) isolates carried mupA gene.

Moreover, norA, smr and qacA/B genes were detected in 110 (91.7%), 55 (45.8%) and 36 (30%) strains, respectively.

Conclusion: This study showed the existence of VISA and VRSA strains in our region, and we also found high frequency of mupirocin and biocide resistance genes among strains.


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