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Background: This study aimed to identify the risk factors of candidemia and asses possible clinically significant differences between Candida parapsilosis and other candida species among cancer patients.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a Chinese tertiary cancer center over a 6-year period. A total of 323 cancer patients were enrolled and analyzed from 2012 to 2018. Data about demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, and risk factors of candidemia were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors associated with the development of candidemia.
Results: Among the isolates, the species most frequently isolated was C. parapsilosis (37.15%, 120/323), and C. albicans only accounted for 34.37%. Based on statistical analysis, when candidemia patients who had C. parapsilosis were compared with other Candida spp., the following factors were found to be significantly associated with C. parapsilosis fungemia: parenteral nutrition (p < 0.001), neutropenia (p < 0.001), receipt of chemotherapy (p = 0.002), and previous antifungal use (p < 0.001). Parenteral nutrition was a factor that independently predicted C. parapsilosis candidemia (OR, 0.183; 95% CI, 0.098–0.340; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: In short, C. parapsilosis as the leading non-albicans Candida spp. isolates in candidemia is posing a major threat for cancer patients. The study highlights the urgent need to evaluate the possibility of development of C. parapsilosis candidemia in cancer patients exposed to these risk factors effective and prevention strategies against this causative agent transmitted through nosocomial route should be implemented.