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Marco Floridia
Giulia Masuelli
Beatrice Tassis
Enrica Tamburrini
Valeria Savasi
Matilde Sansone
Arsenio Spinillo
Giuseppina Liuzzi
Anna Degli Antoni
Serena Dalzero
Laura Franceschetti
Giuliana Simonazzi
Gianpaolo Maso
Daniela Francisci
Carmela Pinnetti
Marina Ravizza


HIV; miscarriage; stillbirth; CD4 cell count; pregnancy loss.


Background: There is limited information on pregnancy loss in women with HIV, and it is still debate whether HIV-related markers may play a role.

Objectives: To explore potential risk factors for pregnancy loss in women with HIV, with particular reference to modifiable risk factors and markers of HIV disease.

Methods: Multicenter observational study of HIV-positive pregnant women. The main outcome measure was pregnancy loss, including both miscarriage (<22 weeks) and stillbirth (?22 weeks). Possible associations of pregnancy loss were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Among 2696 eligible pregnancies reported between 2001 and 2018, 226 (8.4%) ended in pregnancy loss (miscarriage 198, 7.3%; stillbirth 28, 1.0%). In multivariate analyses, only older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per additional year of age: 1.079, 95% confidence interval [CI], HIV diagnosis before pregnancy (AOR: 2.533, 95%CI 1.407-4.561) and history of pregnancy loss (AOR: 1.625, 95%CI 1.178-2.243) were significantly associated with pregnancy loss. No significant association with pregnancy loss was found for parity, coinfections, sexually transmitted diseases, hypertension, smoking, alcohol and substance use, CD4 cell count, HIV-RNA viral load and CDC HIV stage.

Conclusions: Older women and those with a previous history of pregnancy loss should be considered at higher risk of pregnancy loss. The severity of HIV disease and potentially modifiable risk factors apparently did not increase the risk of pregnancy loss.


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