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Thalassemia intermediate, Thalidomide, Fetal hemoglobin, Efficacy, Safety
Objective: This study focused on the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for patients with thalassemia intermedia (TI) in a multicenter trial.
Methods?Clinical and laboratory data of 62 patients subjected to thalidomide therapy in four centers were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the short-term (three months) and long-term follow-up (12 and 24 months). Response to thalidomide was defined as follows: Main Responder (MaR) showing an increase in Hb level of >2.0 g/dl or removal from blood transfusion and Minor Responder (MiR) achieving elevated hemoglobin (Hb) level of 1.0-2.0 g/dl or ?50% reduction in blood transfusion frequency.
Results?The overall response rate (ORR) of 62 patients with TI was 93.5% (58/62), with MaR and MiR rates accounting for 62.9% (39/62) and 30.6% (19/62) in short-term follow-up and 66.1% (41/62) and 27.4% (17/62) in long-term follow-up, respectively. The clinical response during long-term follow-up was maintained and the Hb level remained stable during the observation period. The response was still observed in patients with dose reduction despite a slight decrease in Hb level. However, Hb decreased rapidly to the baseline level after drug discontinuation. No effect of thalidomide on spleen size in nonsplenectomized patients was evident. Minimal side-effects were documented throughout, except peripheral neurotoxicity in one patient. Nevertheless, the mean serum ferritin (SF) level was significantly increased after treatment.
Conclusion: Thalidomide had significant therapeutic effects on patients with TI, and the response was sustained with acceptable short-term and long-term adverse reactions. While these preliminary results support the potential long-term efficacy and safety of thalidomide as a therapeutic agent for TI, several issues need to be addressed before its application in the clinic.