SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Outcome in Neuro-rehabilitation patients hospitalized at Neuroscience Hospital in Italy SARS CoV 2 in severe neurological patients

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Francesco Di Gennaro


Keywords: SARS CoV 2, neurological patients, enoxaparin , neurological damage, Infection, Coronavirus



Introduction:  Patients admitted to intensive neurorehabilitation facilities following neurological damage who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization have not yet been reported. Such patients are elderly, with severe disabling neurological syndromes, more likely have significant underlying comorbidities and develop fatal complications during the disease. We reported clinical features, underlying comorbidities, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment and outcome of severely disabled neurological patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods:  We retrospectively analyzed a group of 14 patients affected by severe neurological damage previously admitted to the Neurorehabilitation Unit of Neuromed Research Institute in Pozzilli, Italy, who developed confirmed COVID-19 during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak occurred on March, 2020.

Results:  One out of 14 patients (7%) died after developing a severe acute respiratory distress. The remaining patients did not present any symptom or laboratory or radiological signs of the disease; neither new neurological deficit nor worsening of the pre-existing clinical manifestations were observed. Thirtheen patients had underlying comorbitidies (93%), the most frequent being hypertension (11 patients, 78.5%) and diabetes mellitus type II (7 patients, 50%). Long before infection, all patients were already under anticoagulant therapy with enoxaparin.

Conclusions:  In 13 out of 14 patients, the infection was asymptomatic; this is particularly intriguing considering their severe neurological clinical profile. According to the pivotal role played by inflammation and activation of blood coagulation in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of enoxaparin, administered much earlier and during infection, could have favored an extremely benign disease course in these patients at high risk of poor outcome.

Keywords: SARS CoV 2, neurological patients, neurological damage, Infection, Coronavirus




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