CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR BLEEDING ASSOCIATED WITH NON-VITAMIN K ANTAGONIST ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS: A MODIFIED DELPHI CONSENSUS FROM SAUDI ARABIA AND UAE

Main Article Content

Abdulrahman Al Raizah
Fakhr Alayoubi
Galal Hassan Abdelnaby
Hazzaa Alzahrani
Majid Farraj Bakheet
Mohammed A Alskaini
Rasha Buhumaid
Sameer Al Awadhi
Sara Nooruddin Kazim
Thiagarajan Jaiganesh
Zohair Al Asiri https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9869-7544

Keywords

Cost effective, Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, Consensus

Abstract

Background: The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have become the mainstay anticoagulation therapy for patients requiring oral anticoagulants (OACs) in the Gulf Council Cooperation (GCC) countries. The frequency of NOAC-associated major bleeding is expected to increase in the Emergency Department (ED). Nonetheless, we still lack local guidelines and recommendations for bleeding management in the region. The present Delphi-based consensus aims to establish a standardized and evidence-based clinical care pathway for managing NOAC-associated major bleeding in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).


Methods: We adopted a three-step modified Delphi method to develop evidence-based recommendations through two voting rounds and an advisory meeting between the two rounds. A panel of 11 experts from the KSA and UAE participated in the consensus development.


Results: Twenty-eight statements reached the consensus level. These statements addressed key aspects of managing major bleeding events associated with NOACs, including the increased use of NOAC in clinical practice, clinical care pathways, and treatment options.


Conclusion: The present Delphi consensus provides evidence-based recommendations and protocols for the management of NOAC-associated bleeding in the region. Patients with major NOAC-induced bleeding should be referred to a well-equipped ED with standardized management protocols. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for establishing the association between NOAC use and major bleeding. Treating physicians should have prompt access to specific reversal agents to optimize patient outcomes. Real-world evidence and national guidelines are needed to aid all stakeholders involved in NOAC-induced bleeding management.

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