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Ugo Testa
Elvira Pelosi
Germana Castelli
Giuseppe Leone



Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disorder of the monoclonal plasma cells and is the second most common hematologic malignancy. MM initiation and progression are dependent upon complex genomic abnormalities. The current pathogenic model of MM includes two types of primary events, represented by chromosome translocations or chromosome number alterations resulting in hyperdiploidy. These primary molecular events are observed both in MM and in monoclonal gammopathy, its premalignant precursor. Subsequent genetic events allow the progression of monoclonal gammopathy to MM and, together with primary events, contribute to the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of MM.

Newer therapies have considerably improved patient outcomes; however, MM remains an incurable disease and most patients experience multiple relapses.

The dramatic progresses achieved in the analysis of the heterogeneous molecular features of different MM patients allowed a comprehensive molecular classification of MM and the definition of an individualized prognostic model to predict an individual MM patient’s response to different therapeutic options. Despite these progresses, prognostic models fail to identify a significant proportion of patients destined to early relapse. Treatment strategies are increasingly. Based on disease biology, trials are enriched for high-risk MMs, whose careful definition and categorization requires DNA sequencing studies.


Keywords: Multiple Myeloma; Chromosome Abnormalities; Molecular Events; Mutations.





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