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Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt.
Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.
Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests) for recurrent/persistent pneumonia to determine its prevalence and to find out the underlying causes.
Results: 113 out of 1228 patients (9.2%) met the diagnosis of recurrent/persistent pneumonia. Identified causes were; aspiration syndromes (17.7%), pulmonary TB (14%), congenital heart disease (11.5%), bronchial asthma (9.7%), immune deficiency disorders (8.8%) and vitamin D deficiency rickets (7%). Other causes included; congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract, interstitial lung diseases, bronchiectasis, and sickle cell anemia. No predisposing factors could be identified in 15% of cases.
Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 10 children with pneumonia in our locality had recurrent/persistent pneumonia. The most frequent underlying cause for recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt is aspiration syndromes, followed by pulmonary TB.